Geology can also include the study of the solid features of any terrestrial planet or natural satellite such as Mars or the Moon. Modern geology significantly overlaps all other Earth sciences, including hydrology and the atmospheric sciences , and so is treated as one major aspect of integrated Earth system science and planetary science. Geology describes the structure of the Earth on and beneath its surface, and the processes that have shaped that structure. It also provides tools to determine the relative and absolute ages of rocks found in a given location, and also to describe the histories of those rocks. Geology provides the primary evidence for plate tectonics , the evolutionary history of life , and the Earth's past climates. Geologists use a wide variety of methods to understand the Earth's structure and evolution, including field work , rock description , geophysical techniques , chemical analysis , physical experiments , and numerical modelling.
Geologic Age Dating Explained
Earth Science Rocks and Minerals Review Quiz - Quizizz
Granite: The specimen above is a typical granite. It is about two inches across. The grain size is coarse enough to allow recognition of the major minerals with the unaided eye or with the help of a hand lens. The pink grains are orthoclase feldspar, and the clear to smoky grains are quartz or muscovite. The black grains can be biotite or hornblende. Numerous other minerals can be present in granite.
Age of Earth
Dating techniques are procedures used by scientists to determine the age of rocks, fossils, or artifacts. Relative dating methods tell only if one sample is older or younger than another; absolute dating methods provide an approximate date in years. The latter have generally been available only since
A fossil from Classical Latin : fossilis , literally "obtained by digging"  is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once- living thing from a past geological age. Examples include bones , shells , exoskeletons , stone imprints of animals or microbes , objects preserved in amber , hair , petrified wood , oil , coal , and DNA remnants. The totality of fossils is known as the fossil record. Paleontology is the study of fossils: their age, method of formation, and evolutionary significance.